Met Decodes

Abbreviations

//*

Weather not detected due sensor temporarily inoperative

///*

Cloud is detected (unable to determine TCU/CB)

////*

Visibility not reported

Light

(blank space)

Moderate (when included before a weather phenomenon)

+

Heavy

9999

Visibility 10 km or more

ABT

About

AC

Altocumulus

AGL

Above ground level

AIP

Aeronautical Information Publication

AIREP

Routine air report from aircraft in flight

AIREP SPECIAL

Special (non-routine) air report from aircraft in flight

AMD

Amended

AMSL

Above mean sea level

ARFOR

Area forecast

AS

Altostratus

ATIS

Automatic terminal information service

ATS

Air traffic services

AWS

Automatic weather station

BC

Patches

BECMG

Becoming

BKN

Broken (5–7 oktas)

BL

Blowing

BLW

Below

BR

Mist (1000–5000m vis)

BTN

Between

BWR

Basic weather report

CAT

Clear air turbulence

CAVOK**

Cloud and visibility OK

CB

Cumulonimbus

CLD

Cloud

COR

Corrected

CU

Cumulus

D

Downward tendency (RVR)

DP

Dew point temperature

DR

Low drifting

DS

Dust storm

DU

Dust

DZ

Drizzle

EMBD

Embedded

END

Stop-end (RVR)

FC

Funnel cloud

FCST

Forecast

FEW

Few (1–2 oktas)

FG

Fog (visibility less than 1000 m)

FIR

Flight information region

FISB

Flight Information Service Broadcast

FL

Flight level

FM

From

FRQ

Frequent

FU

Smoke

FZ

Freezing

FZL

Freezing level

G

Gusts

GR

Hail (5 mm or more)

GS

Small Hail (smaller than 5 mm)

HVY

Heavy

HZ

Haze (visibility less than 5000 m)

IC

Ice crystals

ICAO

International Civil Aviation Organization

ICE

Icing

IFR

Instrument flight rules

IMC

Instrument meteorological conditions

INTSF

Intensifying

ISOL

Isolated

KM

Kilometres

KT

Knots

LYR

Layer

M

Metres

METAR

Aerodrome routine meteorological report (issued for NZWP, NZOH and NZMF only)

METAR AUTO

Automatic aerodrome routine meteorological report

MI

Shallow

MID

Mid-point (RVR)

MOD

Moderate

MOV

Moving

MS

Minus

MTW

Mountain waves

N

No distinct tendency (RVR)

NC

No change

NCD*

No cloud detected

NDV****

No directional variation available

NM

Nautical miles

NOSIG

No significant change

NOTAM

Notice to airmen

NS

Nimbostratus

NSC

No significant cloud

NSW

Nil significant weather

NZZC

New Zealand FIR

NZZO

NZ oceanic FIR

OBSC

Obscured

OCNL

Occasional

OVC

Overcast (8 oktas)

PIREP

Pilot report (AIREP)

PL

Ice pellets

PO

Dust/sand whirls

PR

Partial

PROB

Probability

PS

Plus

QNH

Altimeter sub-scale setting

R

Runway (RVR)

RA

Rain

RE

Recent

RMK

Remark

RVR

Runway visual range

SA

Sand

SC

Stratocumulus

SCT

Scattered (3–4 oktas)

SEV

Severe

SFC

Surface

SG

Snow grains

SH

Shower

SIG

Significant

SIGMET

Significant meteorological information

SKC***

Sky clear

SN

Snow

SPECI

Aerodrome special meteorological report (issued for NZWP, NZOH, and NZMF only)

SQ

Squall

SS

Sandstorm

ST

Stratus

STNR

Stationary

T

Temperature, in degrees Celcius

TAF

Aerodrome forecast

TC

Tropical cyclone

TCU

Towering cumulus

TDZ

Touchdown Zone (RVR)

TEMPO

Temporarily

TIL

Until

TL

Till

TREND

Trend forecast

TS

Thunderstorm

TURB

Turbulence

U

Upward tendency (RVR)

UTC

Coordinated Universal Time

V

Variations from mean wind direction

VA

Volcanic ash

VAA

Volcanic Ash Advisory

VAG

Volcanic Ash Graphic

VC

Vicinity of the aerodrome (between 8 and 16 km from aerodrome reference point)

VFR

Visual flight rules

VIS

Visibility

VMC

Visual meteorological conditions

VRB

Variable

VV

Vertical visibility

WKN

Weakening

WDSPR

Widespread

WS

Windshear

WX

Weather

Z

Coordinated Universal Time

*used in METAR AUTO only.

** used only in TAF for NZAA, NZWN, NZCH.

*** not used in METAR AUTO/TAF for NZAA,NZWN, NZCH.

**** used in METAR AUTO except at NZAA, NZWN, NZCH

ARFOR

Issue times

0530 and 1130 local time

Height reference

Feet above mean sea level

Area of applicability

Within the named area, eg TA (Tamaki)

Wind

Speed

Knots, with gusts indicated where they exceed the mean wind speed by 10 knots or more

Calm is indicated by 00000KT

Direction

Degrees true

VRB indicates variable eg VRB02KT

Visibility

Up to 9999 metres, visibility is forecast in metres, eg 7000
Above 9999 metres, visibility is forecast in kilometres, eg 20KM

Cloud

Type

AS, AC, NS, SC, ST, TCU, CB

Amount

NSC, FEW, SCT, BKN, OVC

Temperature

Degrees Celsius

When Cumulonimbus cloud (CB) is included in meteorological information this implies that there may be associated thunderstorms and severe icing, turbulence and hail.

TAF and TREND

Issue times

Auckland, Wellington and Christchurch: 2300, 0500, 1100, and 1700 UTC

All other aerodromes: 0230, 0930 and 1400 local time

TAF will be amended when appropriate, and will then be annotated AMD

Height reference

100s of feet above aerodrome level

Area of applicability

Within 8 km of the aerodrome reference point. When the term VC is used, it refers to the area between 8 and 16 km from the aerodrome.

Wind

Speed

Knots, with gusts indicated where they exceed the mean wind speed by 10 knots or more.

Gust information follows the mean wind speed separated by the letter G,  eg 24015G30KT

Calm is indicated by 00000KT

Direction

Degrees true

VRB indicates variable, eg VRB02KT

Visibility

Up to 9999 metres, visibility is forecast in metres, eg 7000
Above 9999 metres, visibility is forecast in kilometres, eg 20KM

The terms CAVOK and 9999 are used at NZAA, NZWN & NZCH

Cloud

Type

CB, TCU

Amount

NSC, SKC, FEW, SCT, BKN, OVC

Temperature

Degrees Celsius

When Cumulonimbus cloud (CB) is included in meteorological information this implies that there may be associated thunderstorms and severe icing, turbulence and hail.

 

METAR, METAR AUTO and SPECI

Issue time

METAR* issued hourly, on the hour

SPECI* issued when required and will have issue time other than on the hour

METAR AUTO issued every half hour, 24 hours a day

*NZWP, NZOH, NZMF only

Height reference

100s of feet above aerodrome level

Area of applicability

Within 8 km of the aerodrome reference point. When the term VC is used this applies to the area between 8 and 16 km of the aerodrome reference point.

Wind

Speed

Knots, with gusts indicated where they exceed the mean wind speed by 10 knots or more

Gust information follows the mean wind speed separated by the letter G,  eg 24015G30KT

Calm is indicated by 00000KT

Direction

Degrees true

VRB indicates variable, eg VRB02KT

Direction Variability

When the direction varies by 60 degrees or more, the extreme directions are given, separated by the letter V, eg 260V330

Visibility

Up to 800 metres, rounded down to the nearest 50m; between 800 and 5000 metres, rounded down to the nearest 100 metres; between 5000 and 9999 metres, rounded down to the nearest 1000 metres, eg 9999 metres reported as 9000.
Above 9999 metres, visibility is reported in kilometres (except at NZAA, NZWN & NZCH), eg 20KM

Where there is a marked variation in the visibility, the direction of the minimum visibility is added, eg 2000SW. A second group may be added in very poor visibility conditions, eg 1200SW 7000E. Variation in visibility is not reported in METAR AUTO.

9999 (visibility 10km or greater) is used at NZAA, NZWN & NZCH only

METAR AUTO visibility reports are limited by the upper limit of the measuring equipment, and they vary between aerodromes. A table listing the AWS capabilities is included in the ‘help’ section of the MetFlight GA web site.

Runway visual range (RVR) is reported in metres at NZAA and NZCH during fog events.

Cloud

Type

CB, TCU

Amount

NSC, SKC, FEW, SCT, BKN, OVC

Temperature

Degrees Celsius

When Cumulonimbus cloud (CB) is included in meteorological information this implies that there may be associated thunderstorms and severe icing, turbulence and hail.

ATIS

Issue time

ATIS issued when conditions change.

Height reference

100s of feet above aerodrome level

Wind

Speed

Knots, with gusts indicated where they exceed the mean wind speed by 10 knots or more.

Gust information follows the mean wind speed separated by the letter G,  eg 24015G30KT

Calm is indicated by 00000KT

Direction

Degrees magnetic

Direction Variability

When the direction varies by 60 degrees or more, the extreme directions are given, separated by the letter V, eg 260V330

Visibility

Up to 4999 metres, visibility is reported in metres, eg 3000
Above 5000 metres, visibility is forecast in kilometres, eg 20KM

Cloud

Type

CB, TCU

Amount

SKC, FEW SCT, BKN, OVC

Temperature

Degrees Celsius

When Cumulonimbus cloud (CB) is included in meteorological information this implies that there may be associated thunderstorms and severe icing, turbulence and hail.

Invercargill

Above mean sea level

TCu

Towering Cumulus

agl

above ground level

Cb

Cumulonimbus

Flight Information Service communications

ATS

Air Traffic Service

Royal New Zealand Air Force

in vicinity of aerodrome Thunderstorm

ATC

Air Traffic Control

VC

in vicinity of aerodrome

Probabilityxx%

TIL

Until

FM

From

Becoming

Temporarily

Routine air report from aircraft in flight

FIR

Flight Information Region

Internet Flight Information Service

VFR

Visual flight rules

Automatic Terminal Information Service

BWR

Basic weather report

New Zealand Flight Information Region

Aerodrome special routine meteorological report

Automatic aerodrome routine meteorological report

Aerodrome routine meteorological report

TAF

Aerodrome forecast

Area forecast

Significant meteorological information